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Citations in Text

Format, Personal Communication, Secondary Sources, etc.

In This Section

This section will explain how to cite quotations and paraphrases throughout the body of your paper according to APA @ Conestoga. This section covers

Required Elements

Citations for quotations and paraphrases must have three elements:

1.       Name of the author/authors

                (See About Authors for more information.)

2.       Year of publication

                (See About Dates for more information.)

3.       Page number or paragraph number

                (See About Page/Paragraph Numbers for more information.)

Two Citation Formats

There are two ways to cite whether you are quoting or paraphrasing: standard citation format or split citation format.

Standard Citation Format

For standard citations, put the author, year, and page/paragraph number at the end of the quotation or paraphrase in parentheses. Each element is separated by a comma.

Formula

(Author, year, p. #)

Example

Learning how to correctly cite sources is an important part of writing academic papers 
(Cha, 2014, p. 23).

Split Citation Format

For split citation format, introduce the author and year at the beginning of the quotation or paraphrase, and put the page/paragraph number at the end.  The year follows the author's name and is placed in parentheses. The page/paragraph number is placed at the end of the quotation or paraphrase in parentheses.

Formula

Author (year) … (p. #)

Example

Cha (2014) observed that learning how to correctly cite sources is an important part of 
writing academic papers (p. 23).

About Authors

This section will help you better understand how to incorporate the author in your citations.

Using Authors' Names

One Author

Use the author's last name.

Standard Citation Example

(Anderson, 2010, p. 39)

Split Citation Example

Anderson (2010) … (p. 39)

Two Authors

Use the last names of both authors.

Standard Citation Example

For a standard citation, use the ampersand symbol for and (&) between the authors' names because it is a symbol in parentheses.

(Brown & Smith, 2009, p. 9)

Split Citation Example

For a split citation, use the word and between the authors' names because it is a word in the sentence.

Brown and Smith (2009) … (p. 9)

Three or More Authors

Use the phrase et al. after the first author to replace the other authors' names.

Standard Citation Example

(Cha et al., 2008, p. 205)

Split Citation Example

Cha et al. (2008) … (p. 205)

Individually Authored Chapters in a Book

When a book has various chapters written by different authors, cite the author(s) of the chapter you are using. 

Using Associations, Organization, Companies, etc. as Authors

Sometimes a group of people such as a company or organization created material, so there is no specific author listed. Instead, you can use the name of the group in place of the author.

Groups That Are Easily Identified Through an Abbreviation

First Use

The first time you use the name of the group, use the long form of the name followed by an abbreviation.

Standard Citation Example

In a standard citation, put the abbreviation in square brackets within the parentheses after the name of the group.

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2006, para. 10)

Split Citation Example

In a split citation, put the abbreviation in parentheses after the name of the group, before the year. 

World Health Organization (WHO, 2006) … (para. 10)

Subsequent Uses

After you use the full form of the name once, you can just use the abbreviation in place of the author for the remainder of your paper.

Standard Citation Example

(WHO, 2006, para. 25)

Split Citation Example

WHO (2006) … (para. 25)

Groups That Have No Formal Abbreviation

If the group has no formal abbreviation, always use the long form of the group's name.

Standard Citation Example

(McMaster University, 2009, para. 3)

Split Citation Example

McMaster University (2009) … (para. 3)

Dictionary With No Author

Dictionaries often have no specific author listed. Instead, place the word you are defining in place of the author.

Capitalize the first letter.

No page or paragraph number is needed.

Standard Citation Example

(Ubiquitous, n.d.)

Split Citation Example

Ubiquitous (n.d.)

Source with No Author

When you come across a source that has no author ask yourself the following questions:

1. Is the information credible?

Evaluate the information using Conestoga's Library tutorials and resources.

2. Who is responsible for the information?

Although there might not be an author identified for the specifc article you are reading, the organization or creator of the website might indicate that they are responsible for the information.  To find this information, try to read the About Us, Disclaimer, Terms, or Policies sections of the website.

If there truly is no author, but the information is credible and useful for your paper, use the following format:

1. the title of article or document

If the title is long, use as much of the title as needed to create a complete phrase.  For example, if the title is "A Case Study of Integrated Support at Canadian Post-Secondary Instutitions", you may shorten the title to a phrase such as "A Case Study of Integrated Support".  However, "A Case Study of" would be inappropriate.

2. format according to format in the reference

It is always wise to create a reference entry first so that you know how to format citations in text.

The Mentioning Titles in Your Writing section provides more information.

If the title is in italics in the reference entry, use italics in the paper.

Example

(How Project-Based Learning Helps, 2014, para. 3)

If the title is not in italics in the reference entry, use double quotation marks in the paper.

Example

("Impacting Change", 2013, p. 4)

Understanding Names for Citations

Authors With Only a First and Last Name

If the author's name is Jane Doe,

Jane is the first name and
Doe is the last name.

Use the last name in citations.

Standard Citation Example

(Doe, 2012, p. 93)

Split Citation Example

Doe (2012) … (p. 93)

Authors With Multiple Names

If the author's name is John Marc Smith, assume that
John is the first name,
Marc is the middle name, and
Smith is the last name.

Use the last name in citations.

Standard Citation Example

(Smith, 2013, p. 421)

Split Citation Example

Smith (2013) … (p. 421)

Authors With Two Last Names, Not Hyphenated

The first last name is treated as a middle initial in the references unless it is known that the author uses both last names. Therefore, use only the last name for citations.

If the author's name is Margaret Mclean Heitkemper,

Margaret is the first name,
McLean is treatred as the middle name, and
Heitkemper is the last name.

Use only the last name in citations.

Standard Citation Example

(Heitkemper, 2009, p. 15)

Split Citation Example

Heitkemper (2009) … (p. 15)

Different Authors, Same Last Name, Different First Initial

If there are two authors with the same last name but different first initials, include the first initial followed by a period before the last name in the citation.

Standard Citation Example

(J. Miller, 2010, p. 32)
(L. Miller, 2007, p. 119)

Split Citation Example

J. Miller (2010) … (p. 32)
L. Miller (2007) … (p. 119)

Different Authors, Same Last Name, Same First Initial

If there are two authors with the same last name and the same first initial, the first name of the author should be included in the citation – even if the years of publication are different.

Include the first name followed by the last name.

Standard Citation Example

(Paul Smith, 1995, p. 24)
(Pierre Smith, 2010, p. 19)

Split Citation Example

Paul Smith (1995) … (p. 24)
Pierre Smith (2010) … (p. 19)

Same Author, Same Year, Two Different Sources

If there are two different sources by the same author in the same year, create the reference first:

  1. Order them alphabetically by title.

  2. Add a lowercase letter beside the year.

See About Authors for References (Different Authors, Same, Last Name, Same First Initial).

For the citation, use the last name and the year with the lowercase letter.

Standard Citation Example

(Jones, 2001a, p. 106)
(Jones, 2001b, p. 13)

Split Citation Example

Jones (2001a) … (p. 106)
Jones (2001b) … (p. 13)

Usernames

Some online sources require a username to post information.

Username and Real Name

If the author's real name and username are available, use only the author's real name - last name - in the citation.

If the username is bear10090, but the author's real name is Kaitlyn Sauer,

Kaitlyn is the first name and

Sauer is the last name.

Standard Citation Example

(Sauer, 2014, para. 3)

Split Citation Example

Sauer (2014) ... (para. 3)

Username Only

If only the username is available, use the name as it appears on the website.

Standard Citation Example

(treehugger, 2015, para. 1)

Split Citation Example

treehugger (2015) ... (para. 1)

About Dates

Include only the year for citations, with the exception of personal communications.

If no date is available, use the abbreviation n.d. meaning "no date" with no spacing between the periods.

Standard Citation Example

(Kim, n.d., p. 43)

Split Citation Example

Kim (n.d.) … (p. 43)

Same Author, Same Year, Two Different Sources

If there are two different sources by the same author published in the same year, write the references first:

  1. Order them alphabetically by title.

  2. Add a lowercase letter beside the year.

See About Authors for References (Same Author, Same Year, Two Different Sources)

For citations, use the last name and the year with the lowercase letter.

Standard Citation Example

(Jones, 2001a, p. 84)
(Jones, 2001b, p. 382)

Split Citation Example

Jones (2001a) … (p. 84)
Jones (2001b) … (p. 382)

About Page and Paragraph Numbers

In-text citations require either the page or paragraph number from the source of the information. Always use the page number if it is available.

Documents With Page Numbers

Use the page number on the document you read, not the page number from the printer.

Citing One Page

If the information you are using is from a single page, use the abbreviation p. and one space before the number.

Standard Citation Example

(Murray, 2014, p. 6)

Split Citation Example

Murray (2014) … (p. 6)

Citing More Than One Page

If the information you are using spans more than one page, use the abbreviation pp. and one space before the numbers. Include the page range.

Standard Citation Example

(Anderson, 2014, pp. 10-11)

Split Citation Example

Anderson (2014) … (pp. 10-11)

Online Documents Without Page Numbers

Use the number of the paragraph.

Citing One Paragraph

Use the abbreviation para. and one space before the number.

Standard Citation Example

(Hendry, 2013, para. 6)

Split Citation Example

Hendry (2013) … (para. 6)

Citing More Than One Paragraph

If the information you are using spans more than one paragraph, use the abbreviation paras. and one space before the numbers. Use the paragraph range.

Standard Citation Example

(VanDoormal, 2014, paras. 5-6)

Split Citation Example

VanDoormal (2014) ... (paras. 5-6)

Citing Online Information Under Headings

If there are headings in the online document, use the heading name plus the word section and then the paragraph number.

Standard Citation Example

(Bauman, 2014, Symptoms section, para. 3)

Split Citation Example

Bauman (2014) … (Symptoms section, para. 3)

Citing Streaming Videos/Motion Pictures

When citing a streaming video/motion picture, it is important to use the timestamp in place of page/paragraph number.  Only the time when the information starts is required.  For example, if you quote a line from a movie, use the time when the first word of the line is heard; do not give the duration of the time it took it say the line.

For streamed videos, even if there is a username, use the real name of the person, organization, or company who uploaded the video in author position.  For motion pictures that have producers or directors, use the name(s) of the producer(s) and director(s) in author position.  This should match the information in your reference entry.

Split Citation Example – with real name

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (2010) … (1:50).

Standard Citation Example – with real name

(Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 2010, 1:50).

Split Citation Example – with producers and directors

Lerner et al. (2009) … (14:02).

Standard Citation Example – with producers and directors

(Lerner et al., 2009, 14:02).

Citing Personal Communications

Personal Communications are interviews, emails, guest speakers, class discussions, and other material that cannot be retrieved by your marker.

If source material is on eConestoga, it is retrievable by your marker at Conestoga College, so it should be cited and referenced normally – not as a personal communication.

When citing personal communications, include

Page/paragraph numbers are not required.

Personal Communications are not included in the reference list.

Standard Citation Example

“The company gives new employees a 12-day training session” (C. Blucher, personal 
communication [interview], September 23, 2011).

Split Citation Example

C. Blucher (personal communication [interview], September 23, 2011) explained that 
everyone who starts work there gets 12 days of orientation.

Multiple Citations

If multiple documents support your point, you can include multiple citations.

Use these sparingly; usually one source to back up your point is enough.

Remember to list each source separately on the reference list.

Multiple Citations in Standard Format

Alphabetize the sources as they appear in the reference list.

Separate citations within the parentheses with a semi colon which looks like this: ;

Example

Experts agree that getting involved in the college promotes retention for first-year 
students (Bennett & Smith, 2012, p. 15; Paulson, 2010, p. 81; Thompson, 2008, p. 34).

Multiple Citations in Split Format

This citation example pulls together paraphrases of separate studies.

Sequence sources and their materials in whatever order you wish.

Example

Thompson (2008) explains that having strong peer support is one of the greatest 
indicators of students staying in school after their first year (p. 34). Similarly, 
Bennett and Smith (2012) have shown that involvement in extracurricular activities 
is correlated to student success (p. 15). Furthermore Paulson (2010) suggests that 
students who get to know faculty are more likely to seek help when struggling in 
their courses (p. 81).

Secondary Sources

Many sources you read will have quotations and paraphrases. It is possible to cite those quotations and paraphrases as part of your source rather than having to look up the original.

All secondary citations will follow the split citation format.

Working With a Paraphrase in a Source

When the original source is paraphrased in the source that you read, acknowledge

Introduce the original authors in your sentence, directly followed by the following information within parentheses:

Include the page number of the source you are using at the end of your quotation or paraphrase in parentheses.

The date and/or page number of the original source is not necessary.

Here is an excerpt from a book that paraphrases another source: 

Getting a good night’s sleep is critical in the retention of new material that students 
learn in class and through reading. Unfortunately, studies have shown that 63% 
of students report regularly not getting enough sleep (Renly & Philips, 2010, p. 77).

The book, written by J. Brown, paraphrases a study done by Renly and Philips. See examples below for how you could include the information about the study using Brown's book:

Paraphrasing a Paraphrased Source

Image of paraphrasing a paraphrased source. List Authors. (Author and publication year of the document you read)

Quoting a Paraphrased Source

Image of Quoting a paraphrased source. List author of the original study. (Author and publication year of the document you read)

In the references, list the source that you read, not the original study.

Working With a Quotation in a Source

When the original source is quoted in the source that you read, acknowledge

Introduce the original authors in your sentence, directly followed by the following information within parentheses:

Include the page number of the source you are using at the end of your quotation or paraphrase in parentheses.

The date and/or page number of the original source is not necessary.

Here is an excerpt from a book that quotes another source:

Lack of sleep can lead to physical health problems. In fact, Paulson (1999) states
that “missed sleep leads to increased blood pressure, which can lead to greater issues
such as heart disease” (p. 302).

The book, written by J. Brown, quotes a study done by Paulson. See examples below for how you could include the information from the study using Brown's book:

Paraphrasing a Quoted Source

Image of paraphrasing a quoted source. List author of original study. (Author and publication year of the  document).

Quoting a Quoted Source                                                                                             

Use double quotation marks "…" around words from the source you read.

Use single quotation marks '…' for the words from the original source.

Image of quoting a quoted source. List Author. (Author and publication year of the document you read)

In the references, list the source you read, not the original study.

Checklist

Use the Citations in Text Checklist to guide you through the steps listed above.  This checklist can be downloaded and printed.

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