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Reference List

Articles, Books, Websites, Course Material, etc.

Reference Format

Placement

References must be

Title

The title on your reference page should be centered and bold using a level 1 heading.

If you have one reference, label the page Reference in the singular form.

If you have two or more references, label the page References in the plural form.

Format

The format of the reference page should be as follows:

Punctuation and Spacing

Use one space after each comma, period, and colon in your reference entry.

For Titles

All titles for each source should be in Title Case Capitalization.

Use italics for titles and subtitles of

Example of book title

Where the Sidewalk Ends: The Poems and Drawings of Shel Silverstein

Do not use italics for titles and subtitles of

Example of article title

How the Hare Lost to the Tortoise: A Review

Author(s)

Use the following format for authors in the reference list:

For more information, see About Authors for References.

Editor(s)

When editors are listed in the source, use the following format in the reference entry:

Date

All references should include a date whenever possible.

Electronic Source Dates

For sources found on the Internet, use the publication date or last revised date for all documents.

Some source types require more than a year in the date format:

If no publication date is visible, use the copyright date provided at the bottom of the website after the © symbol.

If there is no copyright date, use the abbreviation (n.d.) meaning "no date."

For sources found in print format, use the most recent copyright date, which appears after the © symbol.

Some source types require more than a year in the date format:

If there is no publication date, use the abbreviation (n.d.) meaning "no date."

Edition

If a source has edition information, include it in the reference entry by doing the following:

Example

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)

Retrieval Statements For Electronic Sources

Electronic sources must show retrieval statements.

There are three possible formats:

  1. DOI
  2. Retrieval date and database name
  3. Retrieval date and URL

This list is in order of preference. Always search for a DOI first. If you do not find a DOI and the source was from the Library's database, use the second type of format and indicate the database name. If you do not find a DOI and the source was from outside of the Library's database but on the Internet, provide the direct link/URL to the information.

DOIs

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier and allows readers to access journal articles or electronic books with a type of direct link. DOIs can be found near the bottom of the Detailed Record if using the Library's database. For journal articles, DOIs can be found either at the top or bottom of the first page of the article. For electronic books, DOIs can be found on the copyright page. DOIs come in two formats:

OR

If a DOI is provided, include it as the retrieval statement.

Do not include a retrieval date, URL, or database name.

Examples

doi:10.1383/medc.30.9.81.28241
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cs/27.2.101

Databases

Database names can be found at the bottom of the Detailed Record when using the Library's database. Use the following format:

Format

Retrieved Month day, year, from database name.

Example

Retrieved September 6, 2014, from eBook Collection database.

URLs

When a DOI cannot be found, and you found the source from a website other than the Library's database, you must provide the direct link/URL to the source. Use the following format:

Format

Retrieved Month day, year, from URL

Example

Retrieved September 6, 2014, from http://www.conestogac.on.ca

Publication Statements For Print Sources

Print sources must indicate publishing information including location and publisher.

Publishing Information: Location

Location information can be found on the copyright page of the print source. This information is provided after the title in the reference entry. Use the following format:

Formula

City, Country

Examples

New York, United States
Toronto, Canada

Publishing Information: Publisher

Indicate the company that is responsible for publishing the information after the publishing location in the reference entry. Publisher information can be found on the copyright page usually beside the copyright information. Use the following format:

Example of publisher abbreviation removed

Random House Inc.		 becomes 	       Random House

Example of author as publisher

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association
(6th ed.). Washington, United States: Author.

About Authors

This section will help you better understand how to incorporate the author in your references. For information on how to use authors in citations, see the About Authors for Citations.

Including Authors in the Reference Entry

One Author

List the author's last name followed by the initials of the first and middle names.

Example

Anderson, J. R. (2010).

Two Authors

List the last names and initials of both authors with a comma plus the ampersand (&) to separate the authors.

Example

Brown, O., & Smith, J. (2009).

Three or More Authors

List all authors with a comma plus the ampersand (&) before the last author to separate the authors.

Example

Cha, G., Liu, X., & Zou, S. (2008).

Using Associations, Organization, Companies, etc.

Sometimes a group of people such as a company or organization created the material, so there is no specific author listed. Instead, you can use the name of the group in place of the author.

Groups

Do not use any abbrevaitions of group names in your reference entries.

For example, if you used World Health Organization and used the abbreviation WHO throughout the paper, the reference entry must show World Health Organization as the author name.

Understanding Names for References

Authors with only a First and Last Name

If the author's name is Jane Doe,

Jane is the first name
Doe is the last name

Use the last name, Doe, followed by the initial of the first name, J., in the reference.

Example

Doe, J.

Authors with Multiple Names

If the author's name is John Marc Smith, assume that
John is the first name
Marc is the middle name
Smith is the last name

Use the last name, Smith, followed by the initials of the first and middle names, J. M., in the reference.

Example

Smith, J. M.

Authors with Two Last Names, Not Hyphenated

The first last name is treated as a middle initial in the references unless it is known that the author uses both last names.

If the author's name is Margaret Mclean Heitkemper,

Margaret is the first name,
McLean is treated as the middle name, and
Heitkemper is the last name.

Use the last name, Heitkemper, followed by the initials of the first and middle names, M. M., in the reference.

Example

Heitkemper, M. M.

Different Authors, Same Last Name, Different First Initial

If there are two authors with the same last name but different first initials, order the entries alphabetically using the first initial.

Example

Miller, J.
Miller, L.

Different Authors, Same Last Name, Same First Initial

If there are two authors with the same last name and the same first initial, the first name of the author should be included in the reference.

Place first name of the author in square brackets after the first initial – even if the years of publication are different.

Place entries in chronological order (the earlier being the first).

Example

Smith, P. [Paul]. (1995) …
Smith, P. [Pierre]. (2010) …

Same Author, Same Year, Two Different Sources

If there are two different sources by the same author in the same year, create the reference by doing the following:

Example

Jones, J. R. (2001a). Contrastive Analysis Implications.
Jones, J. R. (2001b). Deciphering the English Language.

Usernames

Some online sources require a username to post information.

If the author's real name and username are available, place the real name in the author position with the username included after in square brackets. Capitalize the username as seen on the website.

Example

Sauer, K. [bear10090]. (2014, May 15).

If only the username is available, put it in the author position without square brackets.

treehugger. (2015, July 8).

Reference Source Formulas

Each reference has a standard format that contain at least four pieces of information:

In APA @ Conestoga, each piece is separated by punctuation.

Depending on the type of source, more information may be required.

Blogs

The phrase Blog post must appear in square brackets after the title. Keep the title in italics, but do not use italics for the information in square brackets.

Formula

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of Post [Blog post]. Retrieval statement
including URL

Example

Ross, P. (2014, April 9). Creative Control in the Age of Kickstarter [Blog post].
Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://artistsroad.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/
creative-control-in-the-age-of-kickstarter/

Books

The title of the book must be in italics using Title Case Capitalization. If there is an edition available, place the edition number in parentheses not in italics.  If no edition is available, do not include parentheses.

Electronic

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Book (# ed.). doi OR Retrieval statement including the
database name OR Retrieval statement including the full URL

Examples

Henniker, L. B. (2004). When They Invite You to Dinner: Eat First.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1572/0975517783

Winters, C. A., & Lee, H. (2010). Rural Nursing: Concepts, Theory, and Practice
(3rd ed.). Retrieved June 28, 2014, from eBook Collection database.

O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the Crisis in Western Values. Retrieved July 8, 2014,
from http://onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135

Print

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Book (# ed.). Location: Publisher.

Example

Brown, C. (2002). Peanuts: A Dog and His Doghouse (2nd ed.). Toronto, Canada:
Nelson.

Books with Editors Only

For books that only indicate an editor, place the editor name(s) in author position followed by the abbreviation Ed. in brackets.

Print

Formula

Editor, E. (Ed.). (Year). Title of Book (# ed.). Location: Publisher.

Example

Lukic, D. (Ed.). (2002). Health: You and Your Body. New York, United States:
Jones & Stevens.

Books with Individually Authored Chapters

To determine if a book has authors for each chapter, check the table of contents or the first page of each chapter.  If there is a different author for each chapter, you must indicate the author who wrote the chapter you used in your paper for the citation and reference.

If you used more than one chapter, provide a separate reference entry for each chapter.

When there are both authors and editors, provide the editor(s) name(s) after the title of the chapter, but before the title of the book.

The format for author and editor names is as follows:

Print

Formula

Chapter Author, A., & Chapter Author, B. (Year). Title of Chapter. In A. Editor, B.
Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of Book (# ed., # - #). Location: Publisher.

Example

Fetzer, S. J., & Castelein, P. (2010). Vital Signs. In P. A. Potter, A. G. Perry, J. C.
Ross-Kerr, & M. J. Wood (Eds.), Canadian Fundamentals of Nursing
(4th ed., 493-539). Toronto, Canada: Elsevier Canada.

Brochures

The word Brochure must appear in square brackets after the title. Keep the title in italics, but do not use italics for the information in square brackets.

Electronic

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Brochure [Brochure]. Retrieval statement including the
full URL

Example

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Healthy Swimming
[Brochure]. Retrieved June 21, 2014, from
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/pdf/swimming/resources/
healthy-swimming-rwi-brochure.pdf

Print

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Brochure [Brochure]. Location: Publisher.

Example

Counselling Services. (2012). Counselling Services: Hope, Inspire, Support,
Succeed
[Brochure]. Kitchener, Canada: Author.

Course Material

Previously Published Material (i.e. journal articles, book chapters, content publically available on the Internet)

Reference the source in its original format; ignore the fact that it is in a student portal.

Original Course Material on eConestoga (i.e. presentations, lecture notes)

For course material that your professor has created, please make sure that there is an author, a year, and a title.  If any of these pieces are missing, please ask your professor.

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Presentation or Lecture [PowerPoint slides,
Presentation slides, or Lecture notes]. Retrieval statement including name
of student portal.

Example

Lester, A. (2014).Canadian Society During the 80s [PowerPoint slides].
Retrieved July 3, 2014, from eConestoga.

Original or Unattributed Course Material in Course Packs

When referencing information from a course pack or learning package, indicate the person or organization that put the course pack together by using the abbreviation (Comp.) meaning "complier".

When author information is not available, place the title in author position.

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Document. In A. Editor (Comp.), Title of Course Pack
(# - #). Location: Publisher.

Example

Subject-Verb Agreement. (2007). In J. Bennett (Comp.),Written Communication IV:
English Language Studies
(93-96). Kitchener, Canada: Conestoga College.

Dictionaries/Encyclopedias

For a dictionary or encycolopedia reference, there should be two titles.  The first title indicates the word or entry you looked up and uses Title Case Capitalization.  The second title indicates the name of the dictionary or encyclopedia, uses Title Case Capitalization, and is in italics.

With Author and Editor

Electronic

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Entry. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of Dictionary or
Encyclopedia.
doi OR Retrieval statement including the database name
OR Retrieval statement including the full URL

Example

Haber, E. (2013). Pitcher Plant. In J. M. Marsh et al. (Eds.), The Canadian
Encyclopedia.
Retrieved July 9, 2014, from
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/pitcher-plant/

Only Editor

Print

Formula

Title of Entry. (Year). In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of Dictionary (# ed.). Location:
Publisher.

Example

Implant. (2006). In T. Meyers (Ed.), Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing
and Health Professions
(7th ed.). St. Louis, United States: Mosby Elsevier.

No Author or Editor

For reference texts with no author or editor, include edition and volume number when available.

Electronic

Formula

Title of Entry. (Year). In Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia (# ed., vol. #). doi OR
Retrieval statement including the database name OR Retrieval statement
including the full URL

Example

Holistic. (2014). In Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary. Retrieved July 9, 2014,
from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/holistic?show=0&t=1404925466

Discussion Forums

See About Authors for information about usernames. For the title, use the name of the comment thread in italics using Title Case Capitalization and use the phrase Online forum comment in square brackets after the title, but not in italics.

Formula

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of Comment Thread [Online forum comment].
Retrieval statement including URL

Example

gaalan. (2012, September 18). Re: First Flowers of the Season [Online
forum comment]. Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://forums.gardenweb.com/
forums/load/camellia/msg0909513412789.html?3

Journal Articles

After the name of the journal, place a comma, then indicate the volume number followed by the issue number. The issue number should be in parentheses but with no spacing between it and the volume number. The name of the journal, the volume number, and the issue number should all be in italics.

Indicate the page range of the entire article, not only the pages you used. The page range is not in italics.

If you retrieved the article through a library database, use the DOI or database name. If you retrieved it from a website, use a retrieval statement with the date you accessed the information and the direct URL.

Print

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Article. Title of Journal, volume(issue),  #-#.

Example

 Crowley, S. T. W. (2008). The Effect of Leashes on Dogs. Dog Journal, 40(7),
60-62.

Electronic

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), # - #. doi OR
Retrieval statement including the database name OR Retrieval statement
including the full URL

Examples with doi

Shipley, M. (2002). Fibromyalgia. Rheumatology 2, Medicine, 30(9), 81-84.
doi:10.1383/medc.30.9.81.28241

Smokowski, P. R., & Kopasz, K. H. (2005). Bullying in Schools: An Overview of
Types, Effects, Family Characteristics, and Intervention Strategies.
Children & Schools, 27(2), 100-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cs/27.2.101

Example with database

Beaty, L. A., & Alexeyev, E. B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the
Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1-11. Retrieved June 30,
2014, from CINAHL database.

Example with URL

Skiffington, S., Washburn, S., & Elliot, K. (2011). Instructional Coaching: Helping
Preschool Teachers Reach Their Full Potential. Young Children, 66(3),
36-41. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://www.naeyc.org/files/yc
/file/201105/Teachers_Full_Potential_OnlineMay2011.pdf

Motion Picture

For motion pictures accessed on a disc (i.e. DVD), there is no electronic retrieval statement. Use Country of Origin: Studio format.

The phrase Motion picture must appear in square brackets after the title. Keep the title in italics, but do not use italics for the information in square brackets.

Instead of indicating the author, provide all producers' names and the director in that order.

Formula

Producer, A. (Producer), & Director, B. (Director). (Year). Title of Motion Picture
[Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Example

Abraham, M. (Producer), Bruce, L. (Producer), Bliss, T. (Producer), & Hoffman,
M. (Director). (2002).The Emperor’s Club [Motion picture]. United States:
Universal Studios.

Newspapers/Magazine Articles

A newspaper or magazine reference entry should have two titles. The first title indicates the title of the article and uses Title Case Capitalization. The second title indicates the name of the newspaper or magazine, uses Title Case Capitalization, and is in italics.

Electronic

Formula

Author, A. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine. Retrieval
statement including the database name OR Retrieval statement including
the full URL.

Example with database

Labos, C. (2014, August 25). There’s No Evidence Alzheimer’s Is Caused by a
Lack of Vitamin D. The Gazette. Retrieved August 27, 2014, from
Canadian Newsstand Major Dailies database.

Example with URL

Givetash, L. (2012, June 28). CIGI Campus Wins Architectural Award. The
Record.
Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://www.therecord.com/news-
story/2605630-cigi-campus-wins-architectural-award/

Print

Formula

Author, A. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine, # - #.

Example

Richler, J. (2014, July). A Chicken to Write Home About. Maclean’s, 69.

Personal Communications

Personal communications include interviews, emails, guest speakers, class discussions, etc. that cannot be retrieved by your marker.

Important notes:

For information about Personal Communications, see Citing Personal Communications.

Reports & Other Official Documents

These include documents published by governments, NGOs, corporations, and organizations.
Include a description of the document in square brackets after the title [i.e. Fact sheet, Press release, Report No. #, Catalogue No. #].

Electronic

Formula

Author, A. (year). Title of Work [Description of document]. Retrieval statement
including URL OR Retrieval statement including database name.

Example

Statistics Canada. (2013). National Household Survey (NHS), 2011: Language
Use in the Workplace in Canada
[Catalogue No. 99-012-X-2011003].
Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-
sa/99-012-x/99-012-x2011003_2-eng.pdf

Streaming Video: Public Access (such as YouTube)

The person, organization, or company who uploaded the video is the author of the video. Provide the username in square brackets if both real name and username are provided.  If only a username is provided, place it in the author position with no square brackets.

When finding videos on publically available sites like YouTube, make sure that the person, organization, or company who uploaded the video has permission and owns the video rights.

The phrase Video file must appear in square brackets after the title. Keep the title in italics, but do not use italics for the information in square brackets.

Formula

Author, A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of Video [Video file]. Retrieval
statement including URL

Example

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. [mskcc]. (2010, August 11). Prostate
Cancer Q&A – Sloan-Kettering
[Video file]. Retrieved May 30, 2014, from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9hGSw_4MkI

Streaming Video: Subscription (such as Films on Demand)

Producer and director information are usually shown at the end of the video. Indicate all producers first then the director's name.

The phrase Video file must appear in square brackets after the title. Keep the title in italics, but do not use italics for the information in square brackets.

Subscription videos are usually found through the Library's database, so indicate the database name in the retrieval statement.

Formula

Producer, A. (Producer), & Director, B. (Director). (Year). Title of Video [Video
file]. Retrieval statement using database name.

Example

Lerner, A. C. (Producer), Lerner, E. (Producer), & Buruchian, B. (Director).
(2009). New Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes [Video file]. Retrieved May
30, 2014, from Films On Demand database.

Website Documents

Before using this section, please make sure that the source you have is not a blog, a discussion forum, an online dictionary, a newspaper/magazine, an eBook, a journal, or an official report. For any of those sources, please use the appropiate section on this page.

For websites, you may have to do some research to determine the author of the document you are using. When in doubt, determine who is responsible for the information.  Also look at the About Us section on the website for author information.  If there is no author, place the title of the document in place of the author using Title Case Capitalization and in italics, followed by the year in brackets and retrieval statement.

For more information about authors, please see the About Authors section.

Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Web Document. Retrieval statement including URL

Examples

Tibbits, J. (n.d.). President’s Welcome. Retrieved July 16, 2014, from
http://www.conestogac.on.ca/about/welcome.jsp

For information that spans multiple pages relating to one main topic, find the starting page for that main topic, which often has the menu list. Use that page's URL in your reference entry instead of every micropage of the site. See About Page and Paragraph Numbers for citing format information.

WebMD. (2014). ADHD in Children. Retrieved August 25, 2014, from
http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/childhood-adhd/default.htm

Checklist

Use the Reference List Checklist to guide you through the steps listed above. This checklist can be downloaded and printed.

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