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Visuals & Appendices

Tables, Figures, Appendices

In This Section

This section explains how to include visuals such as figures (graphs, photographs, etc.), tables, and appendices in your paper.

This section covers

Whenever you include a visual or appendix, don't forget to reference the source in the References page.

Images

Images must be cited and referenced in your work, whether they are content figures or decorative. See Figures below for more information.

When using images in your work, make sure they serve a purpose and are effective. Library Services provides information for students on copyright and images.

Most images on the Internet are copyright protected and using an image without permission may be copyright infringement.

Databases with Available Images

Library Services lists databases that permit the use of electronic images for educational purposes, provided that the image is properly cited and referenced. 

 

Figures

Figures include visuals such as digital images, photographs, illustrations, charts, or graphs. If you mention figures in your work, they are content figures. You can also use figures simply for decoration. Decorative images should be used sparingly. All figures must be cited and referenced in your work.

Figure Placement

There are two options for placing figures in your work:

  1. in the document close to where they were mentioned OR

  2. at the end in an appendix.

Ask your instructor for specific expectations of figure placement in your assignment.

Referring to Figures

Number figures in the order they are mentioned in your work.

Example

Figure 1
Figure 2

Refer to every figure in text by the figure's number. Do not write "The figure above" or the "The figure below."

Example

As shown in Figure 1… 
…(see Figure 1). 
Figure 2 depicts…

Labelling and Citing Figures

Captions and labels should be double-spaced, 12 pt., Arial font, and left aligned. All information is located directly below the figure.

There are four steps to labelling and citing a figure in your work:

1. Label the Figure

2. Provide a Caption

3. Acknowledge How the Information Was Used

Use one of the following phrases:

4. Cite the Source


Example of a Cited Figure


Image of figure. Lable figure. Provide caption. Acknowledge how the information was used. Cite the source.

How to Label and Cite a Creative Commons Image

Creative Commons (CC) images need a CC licensing statement at the end of the caption. Use the following format: Licensed under [add the shortened version of the CC licensed]. If possible, embed a link back to the license and original image. See below for example. 

Taj Mahal


Figure 1. Taj Mahal. From Dalloul, 2013. Licensed under CC BY 2.0.


Referencing Figures

All figures must be referenced on your reference page (except photographs taken by you). See the templates below for how to reference figures taken from different locations.

1. Figure Retrieved from an Image Database or Image Sharing Site

Standard Figure Reference Template

Author, A.(Creator’s Role).(Year). Title of Image [Figure Format]. Retrieved month day, year, 
     from database OR URL

Example - Britannica ImageQuest

Marriott, J. E. (Photographer). (2016). Town of Banff and Sulphur Mountain   
     [Photograph]. Retrieved August 1, 2019, from Britannica ImageQuest database

Example - Flickr (Creative Commons)

Dalloul, A. (Photographer). (2013). Taj Mahal [Photograph]. Retrieved August 2, 2019,
     from https://flic.kr/p/fNUY34

Figure with No Author

Title of Image [Figure Format]. (Year). Retrieved month day, year,
     from database or URL

Example

Blas de Lezo [Painting]. (1853). Retrieved August 1,2019, from    
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blas_de_Lezo_unknown_author.jpg

Figure formats include photograph, digital image, illustration, painting, graph, etc.

Creator’s role includes professional titles such as photographer, artist, etc.

Figure Retrieved from a Source

Website Formula

Author, A.(Year).Title of Web Document. Retrieved month day, year,   
     from URL

Example

Statistics Canada.(2016). Insight on Canadian  Society: Co-op Participation of College 
     and Bachelor’s Graduates. Retrieved May 7, 2019, from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/    
     n1/pub/75-006-x/2016001/article/14692-eng.htm

Book Formula

Author, A. (Year). Title of Book (#ed.). Location: Publisher.

Example

Wilson, L. (2014). Partnerships: Families and Communities in Early Childhood (5th ed.). 
     Toronto, Canada: Nelson.


Tables

Tables are lists of data arranged in columns.

Table Placement Options

There are two options for placing tables in your work:

  1. in the document close to where they are mentioned in the text OR

  2. at the end of the document in an appendix.

Ask your instructor if he or she has a specific expectation for figure placement in your assignment.

Referring to Tables

Number tables in the sequence they are mentioned in your work (for example, Table 1, Table 2, etc.).

Refer to every table in the text by its number. Do not write "the table above" or "the table below."

Example

As shown in Table 1… 
…(see Table 1). 
Table 2 depicts…

Labelling and Citing Tables

All information should be double-spaced, 12 pt., Arial font, and left-aligned.  The information is located directly below the table.

There are four steps to labelling and citing a table in your work:

1. Label the Table

2. Provide a Title

3. Acknowledge How the Information Was Used

Use one of the following phrases to acknowledge the source:

4. Cite the Source


Example of a Cited Table


Image of table. Lable the table. Provide title. Awknowledge how the information was used. Cite the source modified in  citation.

Referencing Tables

Reference the source that the table is from or where you got the information to make the table (e.g. a website, book, e-Book, or journal article. Reference templates for different source types can be found on the APA @ Conestoga Reference List page.

Appendix / Appendices

If you have supplemental material for your paper that would be useful for your reader but distracting in the body of your paper, you can place this material at the end of your paper in an appendix or appendices. This supplemental material may include large visuals, detailed research study results, surveys, questionnaires, etc.

This section outlines how to include an appendix/appendices in your paper.

Referring to Appendices

Always refer to appendices in the body of your paper.

Example

This study displayed the preferred outcome (see Appendix A).
See Appendix B for an example of the survey that was administered.

Placement of Appendices

Each appendix must be on a separate page.

Appendices are placed after the reference page(s).

Formatting Appendices

Labels and titles of appendices should be centered and bolded (as a Level 1 heading).

Text in an appendix should be left aligned.

Labelling Appendices

Label appendices in the same order that they are mentioned in your paper.

Include the title of the appendix below the label.

Example of Appendix

Image of labelling appendices. Lable the appendix. Include the title of the appendix on the line below.

Checklist

Use the Visuals & Appendices Checklist to guide you through the steps listed above.  This checklist can be downloaded and printed.

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