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APA @ Conestoga Changes

Overall Paper Layout

An MS Word template has been created with the APA @ Conestoga formatting.

Header

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Include the words “Running head:” before the title (in CAPS) – on page 1 only. All other pages have only the title (in CAPS) plus the page number.

Limit the title to 50 characters – including spaces.

Include the title of the paper in CAPS - positioned flush left; all pages are formatted the same way.

Include the page number – positioned flush right. Page 1 is the title page.

Keep the title short enough so that it doesn’t run into the page number; make sure it meaningfully reflects the paper content.

Font

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Times New Roman, 12 pt

Arial, 12 pt.

Note re font: APA uses Times NR, but for AODA, a sans serif font should be used. (Students will have to change the MS Word default font, which is Calibri. There is a Writing Service handout on how to change the default font. Our information will remind students to change the font in the header too.)

Title Page

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Limited information: title, author, institution affiliation

More information: title, student name, student number, course code and/or name, course instructor, assignment due date

Font for Titles of Sections

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Do not use bold font for the paper title on page 2, the References title, and the Appendices title(s).

All titles are bold.

The First Page of the Text (i.e. page 2)

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

The title is written before the first line of text – not bold.

No title at the beginning of the text. (It is in the header.)

NB: Do not write “introduction” before the first paragraph. APA assumes that the first paragraph is the introduction: No label is required.

Abbreviations

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

If the abbreviation is in the Webster’s dictionary, do not write out the full term

e.g. IQ - not Intelligence Quotient

Always write out terms the first time they are used — with the abbreviation in brackets immediately following. For subsequent mentions, use the abbreviation.

e.g. His Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was assessed. The IQ score…

Citations

Citing the same reference more than once in the same paragraph

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Include the date only for the first citation when the same source is cited more than once in the same paragraph.

Always include the date in a citation.

Paraphrases: Page/paragraph numbers for

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

APA states that for paraphrases, “you are encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number” (APA, 2010, p. 171).

We have always advised students to ask their instructor.

Always include a page or paragraph number for paraphrases.

Quotations of 40 words or more: Period placement for

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

The period goes before the citation.

e.g. blah, blah, blah. (Author, year, p. 3)

Always place the period after the citation. This makes the format for quotations the same – regardless of the length of the quotation:

e.g. “blah, blah, blah” (Author, year, p. 3).

Personal Communication: Defined

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

The period goes before the citation.

For class material – i.e. anything on D2L - treat it as personal communication because it isn’t retrievable by the general public.

Material on D2L is now treated as a usual reference. It is now considered as retrievable by the marker and so will be included in the reference list and cited in text as usual.

Sources that cannot be retrieved will continue to be cited in text only.

Add the type of communication in square brackets.

e.g. C. Blucher (personal communication [telephone interview], September 23, 2014)…

Secondary sources: citing of

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

No change

References

Listing Authors: In-text citation format

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Beginning with 3 - 5 authors, initial and subsequent uses in text change.

No change: For 1 & 2 authors, always list both authors.

Change: In all citations, for 3 and more authors, list 1st author plus et al.

Listing Authors: References format

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Depending on the number of authors, the format changes. (see handout)

In references, always list all authors — regardless of the number of authors.

Health Sciences resources

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Currently only references for unusual sources – i.e. ones that are not modelled in “Reference Types” handout.

All PN texts are now included.

Title of source

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the Subtitle, and any proper nouns – i.e. sentence style capitalization.

Capitalize all titles with Title Style Capitalization.

Title of website documents

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

APA says that stand-alone document titles are italicized; others are not. [Knowing whether or not a particular document is part of a greater whole is difficult.]

Always italicize the title of website documents.

Retrieval date for electronic sources

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Use the date if the source material is likely to change.

[Knowing whether or not source material is likely to change is difficult.]

Always include the retrieval date for all electronic sources unless there’s a DOI.

URLs: for all electronic resources

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Use the homepage URL if it is easy to find the web documents from the website homepage. Otherwise, use the web document’s full URL.

Always use the web document’s full URL.

Break the URL before punctuation in order to not have white space at the end of a reference. Let MS Word break the URL.
Remove the hyperlink on URLs. Do not remove hyperlink (MS Word default).

Place of publishing for print material

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

For locations within the United States, use the City + the State’s postal abbreviation. For locations outside the United States, use the City + Country.

Always use City + Country.

e.g. Toronto, Canada
New York, United States

[NB: We checked with the APA Style Experts re United States of America OR United States.]

Superscript

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Do not superscript an ordinal number expressed in numerals – used for edition numbers.

e.g. (2nd ed.)

Use MS Word default – which superscripts ordinal numbers.

e.g. (2nd ed.)

Course Material

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

These are personal communications if they are not available to the public — i.e. on a LMS

If material is from D2L, because it is accessible by the marker, it will be treated as a usual retrievable reference.

Personal Communication: defined

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Anything that is not available by the general public.

Anything that is not available — within the Conestoga systems — to the marker. This material would, therefore, not be on the reference list, but would be cited in text in the usual “personal communication” format.

Italics for journal volume

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Use italics for journal volume but not issue. No space between the volume number and the bracket.

e.g. 40(7)

Use italics for both journal volume and issue. The standard of no space between volume and bracket remains.

e.g. 40(7)

Indicating page numbers for source material with a range of pages

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

pp. is included before the numerals to indicate the page range for print newspapers, reference texts & chapters in books; whereas, only the numbers are used for journal articles & magazines.

Be consistent in the use: Do not use pp. before the actual numerals for any sources.

e.g. (13 – 15)

Name of blog or discussion forum website in retrieval information

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

If the name of the organization is not easily determined from the URL, include it in the retrieval information.

e.g. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from Courage 2 Create website: http://www.example.com

Use only the URL and retrieval date in the retrieval statement.

e.g. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://www.example.com

Grey literature references: Now called ‘Reports and Other Official Documents’

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

The previous formula:

Author, A. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx) [Description of form]. Retrieved month day, year, from http://www.example.com

Author, A. (year). Title of Work [Description of document]. Retrieval statement including URL OR Retrieval statement including database name.

NB: Include as much information as is available to identify the source.

DOI: what to do if there is no DOI given on a journal article

According to APA Changes for APA @ Conestoga

Check CrossRef.org for the DOI – under “Guest Query.”

For Internet resources: If no DOI is found, find the journal homepage URL; do not use the URL in the address bar.

If there is no DOI, use one of 2 options:

  1. If resource is from the LRC database, use the database name.
  2. If it is an Internet resource, use the full URL located in the address bar.

These changes to the American Psychological Association style guides were made for APA @ Conestoga by a sub-committee of the APA @ Conestoga Advisory Committee and subsequently approved by the Advisory Committee in June 2014.

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